In this article, we are going to see the brooding management in poultry farming.
Brooding Management in Poultry is done in the first 14 days period of the broiler poultry life — which is the most sensitive period because the bird is changing from an immature system to a mature system. For a better and profitable poultry production, we can’t ignore Good Brooding Management practice.
In many countries, some poultry producers think that by the second week the birds are adults already and stop giving them external help to maintain good conditions. This could lead to one of the worst situations in Brooding. While Brooding Management in Poultry, poultry producer’s one common mistake is to think only of maintaining the proper temperature.
Apart from temperature, we should also take care of other issues. Other issues like the 80-20 rule, which means that 80%of the consequences come from 20% of the causes. While brooding we should always think about the brooding temperature, air quality, water, and feed. Proper management of these areas will be the key factor in uniformity, which results in a good performance. We will assume that we receive good quality chicks from the hatchery, which suggests that the day-old chicks are active with bright eyes wide open, with strong and glossy shins, navels healed, without physical defects, no pathogens and with good maternal Immunity.
The first week of BroodingManagement in Poultry corresponds to to23% of the life of the 1.75g broiler. This first week represented 1 1 % of the entire life in 1978 to achieve the same weight. So the proper commitment to a good start is very important for the broiler, and each good point achieved will be a 20 brooding period.
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Temperature Management in Poultry
Two basic systems of temperature control are used for brooding management in poultry.
Spot brooding (canopy or radiant heaters). The heat source is local so chicks can move away to cooler areas and thus select for themselves a preferred temperature.
The heat source is larger and more widely spread so chicks are less ready to move to pick a preferred temperature.
Whole-house brooding refers to situations where the whole house ora defined part of the house is heated by ‘forced air heaters’ only and the aim is to achieve one temperature in the house or air space.
In both spot and whole-house brooding systems, the target is to stimulate both appetite and activity as early as possible. Achieving optimum temperature is critical. Brooding temperatures for RH 60—70%
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Spot Brooding Management in Poultry Farming
Chick behavior is the best indicator of correct brooder temperature. With spot brooding, the correct temperature is indicated by chicks being evenly spread throughout the brooding area.
The layout for a spot brooding set up would be typical for 1,000 chicks on day one. Chicks are placed in a 5×5 meter square (25 m2) or a 16.5×16.5 foot square (272 ft2), which gives an initial stocking density of 40 chicks/m2 (4chicks/ft2) If stocking density is increased, the number of feeders and drinkers, and the heating capacity of the brooder, should also be increased accordingly.
Whole-House Brooding Management in Poultry Farming
In whole-house brooding, there’s no gradient within the house, although supplementary brooders may additionally be provided. The main whole-house heat sources are often direct or indirect (using hot air). Carefully monitor and control house temperature and humidity when whole-house brooding is practiced.
Chick behavior is the best indicator of the correct temperature. With whole-house brooding, the correct temperature is indicated by chicks forming groups of 20—30, with movement occurring between groups. There should be continuous feeding and drinking within the flock.
Key Points To Remember About Brooding Temperature of Brooding Management in Poultry
- Temperature is critical and should be maintained as recommended.
- Temperatures should be checked manually at chick level. Chick behavior should be observed closely and frequently.
The ratio of body surface to body mass is large in the one-day-old chick and decreases with age, so the chick will lose heat faster than an adult bird. The young chick’s body is covered, which has a low insulation value, so if the temperature is not controlled, it will quickly lose heat through radiation and conduction.
We suggest preheating and stabilizing the garbage 24 hours before placing it, and sometimes preheating it for 48 hours, depending on the season, the region, and the outside temperature. A comfortable chick will breathe through its nostrils and lose 1-2 g of moisture in the first 24 hours. The yolk contains this amount of moisture: it will decrease but will not dehydrate. If birds are exposed to cold temperatures, they will try to save or generate heat by snuggling or burning food to keep warm, which affects the feed conversion ratio and this is the most expensive way. If the ambient temperature is 260C (78.80F), the same loss of moisture (1 -2g) in the yolk will last the chick for three days. That is why, in practical terms, once we see the large buds, we will say that the bird got cold in the first days.
In the opposite case, with too high a temperature, birds will try to remove heat or avoid producing heat, gasping to lose. Always watch and use the behavior of the birds and the effective temperature because it is the definitive guide to determine the proper temperature for birds. Smaller egg chicks (younger brood flocks) require higher rearing temperatures because they produce less heat (about 1 oz) during the first seven days. Depending on the seasonal climate, it is very important to have a tool to heat and cool the air, and options to provide correct airflow and distribution. Do not forget that broilers in a rearing phase do not need an air velocity greater than 0.3 m / s at ground level.
Air Management in Poultry Farming
Ventilation distributes heat throughout the house and maintains good air quality in the breeding area. Ideal air quality should be with 19.5% oxygen, less than 3000 ppm carbon dioxide, less than 10 ppm carbon monoxide and ammonia (NH3), and dust levels are less than 3.4 mg / m3. Inadequate minimum ventilation and the resulting poor air quality can cause an increase in NH3, CO2, and humidity levels and an increase in production-related syndromes, such as ascites. It is important to always assess NH3 levels at the height of birds. The negative effects of NH3 include burns on the footpads, burns to the eyes, blistering of the breasts/skin irritations, weight loss, unevenness, susceptibility to disease, and blindness.
Water and Feed management in Poultry Farming
We can call the water an ‘invisible’ player in parenting, he can be an enemy and a friend too! Many times we see this component forgotten by the broiler industry and poultry farmers. Water is an essential nutrient that affects practically all physiological functions. We must give 24 ml of water per bird in the first 24 hours, mixed with Aquaculture.
Poultry farmers must also not forget the importance of cleaning and disinfecting water lines. Generally, the use of 40-50 micron water filters is suggested to take care of good water quality. The 650- 750mv oxy reduction potential (ORP) may be a good target; This will lead to equipment corrosion, but this may not adequately disinfect the water.
The best way to improve flock performance is not by increasing the seven-day weight of the fastest-starting chicks, but by decreasing the number of slower starters! A good coefficient of variation is 8-10%. A good tool to try is the Chick Check evaluation! It consists of evaluating 100 birds observing the consistency of the crop. The culture is palpated after six hours and again 24 hours after placement. A good goal is to obtain 95% of the birds with water and food in the crop. We must not forget that birds are the simplest sensor during a home. For better weight gain, lower mortality, development of immunity in birds, and protection against disease, it is highly recommended to use the best quality poultry medications, which are tested over time.