In this article, we are going to see How to Start a Onion Cultivation Business?
SOIL FOR ONION
Onions grow well in alluvial soils, with fertile soil. In addition, onions love well-drained, loamy soil. The ideal pH range for planting onions should be between 5.8 and 6.5.
CLIMATE FOR ONION
Temperatures are 13 ° C – 24 ° C in the crop section and 16 ° C – 21 ° C in the germination phase, and 30 ° C – 35 ° C in ripening and harvesting.
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FIELD FOR ONION
Plow the field for good farming and apply a good FYM at a rate of 20 tons per hectare
Basically, there are 3 types of onions.
a) Red varieties:
Kharif: A bright red Agrifound, a dark red Agrifound, Baswant – 780, Niphad – 53.
Rabbi: Niphad – 241, Niphad 2071 – 1, Pusa safeed.
b) White Species:
Niphad – 5- 7- 1, Niphad – 123-7-1, Break safe.
c) Variety of salads:
Early Granno (yellow salad onion)
Also, you can try Bellary Red, Pusa Red, NP 53, Ark Niketan, Ark Kalyan, Ark Lalima, Ark Kirthiman, Ark Pitamber, Ark Kalyan, Agri Found Light Red Agri Available Red Springs and Rose onions.
Onion plants can be grown in many different ways. You can start planting onions from transplants, sets or seeds.
Irrigation is required during transplanting / mixing of cloves, and then light irrigation is required on the third day after planting. Water the implant immediately after planting.
Normally 150: 50: 80: 80 kg NPKS is required per hectare. Add 50% N and 100% P, K and S as basal dose and leave 50% N for use in two divisions 30 to 45 days after planting. Topdressing should be completed before bulb development.
IRRIGATION REQUIREMENT FOR ONION
Irrigation is essential for a successful onion growing business. Water the plants immediately after planting, and then irrigate lightly on the third day after planting and subsequent watering will be done with a break of 7 to 10 days (depending on soil conditions and time of year).
Mulching is a great way to retain moisture in the soil. It also helps to protect weeds in the field.
Remove all weeds before planting. You can use Oxyfluorfen @ 0.15 to 0.25 kg / hectare or Fluchloralin @ 1 kg / hectare or Pendimethalin at a rate of 3.5 liters per hectare.
For straight seeds, use Pendimethalin @ 3ml / liter of water immediately after sowing. Doing so will not affect the growth and development of the seedlings.
ONION PEST CONTROL
Thrips tabaci (Thysonoptera: Thripidae)
- Remove some of the strategies around the sites, and irrigate the sites regularly to cool the sites.
- Spray 1: 6 (one part extract and six parts water).
- Spraying of dimethoate or metasystox or methyl parathion 0.05%.
- Use of manocrotophos or dimethoate or endosulfon or quinolphos @ 2ml / lit has been reported to control pests.
- Spraying of any pesticides such as carbaryl 0.2% or Malathion 0.1%.
Aceria tulupi (Eriophydae, Acarina: Aracnida)
- Spraying with Wettable sulfur or Dicofol 0.05%.
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ONION DISEASE CONTROL
Purple Blotch (Alternaria porri)
- Use of healthy seeds for planting
- 2-3 years of crop rotation with unrelated plants
- Spraying Mancozeb (0.25%) or Chlorothalonil (0.2%) or Iprodione (0.25%) one month after planting within two weeks reduces the risk of infection.
Stemphylium Blight (Stemphylium vesicarium)
- Sanitation and collection and incineration of crop residues reduce the spread of disease.
Spraying Mancozeb (0.25%) and Monocrotophos (0.05%) with a triton sticker when the disease occurs within two weeks controls the disease.
Basal Rot (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae)
- Mixed planting and crop rotation reduces the incidence of diseases.
- Sun exposure by distributing a polythene sheet 250 guage in the summer for 30 days reduces the risk.
- Thiram treatment of seeds (2 g / kg of seeds) and the incorporation of Carbendazim soil, Thiophanate Methyl (Topsin-M) or Benomyl @ 0.1% are effective in controlling the disease.
- Seedling dip in Carbendazim (0.1%) or with an adversary ie. Pseudomonas cepacis, and Trichoderma viride significantly reduce basal rot in an onion plant.
Downy Mildew (the destroyer of Perenospora):
- Exposure to the sun for 12 days to destroy the fungus
- Spraying with Zineb (0.2%), Carnate (0.1%) or Tridemorph (0.1%) also provides good disease control
Onion Smut (Urocystis cepulae):
Treating the seeds with Captan or Thiram (2.5g / kg of seeds) before sowing controls the disease.
Seed bed treatment with Methyl Bromide (1 kg / 25 m.) Is effective in controlling the disease
Onion Smudge (Colletotrichum circinans)
Complete treatment of the bulb after harvesting and keeping the bulbs in well-ventilated rooms can control the disease.
Black Mold (Aspergillus niger)
- The lumps should be dried in the shade for 10-15 days before storage.
- Care should be taken to avoid damage to the lumps during post-harvest handling.
- Crops should be sprayed with Carbendazim (0.2%) 10–15 days before harvest.
Bacterial Brown Rot (Pseudomonas aeruginosa)
Proper treatment and rapid drying of the bulbs after harvest is essential for disease control.
Affected bulbs should be discarded before storage. If rains occur during maturation, Streptocycline spraying (0.02%) is recommended.
Yellow Dwarf Onions
Control: Removal and destruction of diseased plants assess the spread of the disease. Healthy bulbs should be used to produce seeds. Malathion spray (0.1%) or Metasystox (0.1%) vectors control vectors checks for the spread of the disease
Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes or Colletotrichumcircinans)
- As the pathogen lives in plant waste, sanitation and the destruction of infected plant waste helps to reduce the disease.
- Mancozeb (0.25%), Carbendazim (0.1%) or Thiophanate Methyl (0.1%) as a foliar spray is effective in fighting the disease.
White rot (Sclerotium rolfsii):
- Planting onions in the same place should be avoided.
- It is recommended to rotate plants and seeds.
Thiram treatment of seeds (4 g / kg of seeds) and soil immersion with Mancozeb (0.25%) is effective in controlling the disease.
- Using bio-control agents such as Trichoderma viride in the soil reduces the inoculum of the disease
Care should be taken to avoid damage to the bulbs during handling after harvest. Plants should be sprayed with Carbendazim (0.2%) 10–15 days before harvest.
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Harvesting onions in the right stage of ripening is very important. Usually, onion clusters reach maturity when the plants stop producing new leaves and roots.
Neck loss is a sign of onion ripening. You should start harvesting onions at 50% in the fall section.
If you want to store onions, make sure all the onions are fully developed before harvesting.
After harvesting, keep the bulbs in an open area for 3 to 4 days under the sun to dry initially. Then separate the sick, rotten, and damaged bulbs. Finally, store bulbs in a cool, dry, ventilated store. Use several rooms to avoid overloading the bulbs.
Generally, you can expect 25 to 30 tons per hectare.
Selling onions is very easy. You can sell it at local stores or retail stores or you can sell it on the market premises.
Hope you enjoyed reading this article on How to Start a Onion Cultivation Business and find it useful.