In this article, we are going to see the properties, nature, composition, and kinds of alluvial soil.
India has various auxiliary features, landforms, climatic zones, and plant species. This has contributed to the formation of various soil types in India.
On the basis of type, color, composition, and location, Indian soil is divided into (i) Alluvial soils (ii) Black soils (iii) Red and yellow soils (iv) Laterite soils (v) Arid soils (vi) Saline soils (vii) Waterlogged soil (viii) Forest soil.
What is alluvial soil?
Alluvium, a material deposited by rivers. It usually grows mainly in the lower part of the river, forming floodplains and plains, but can be planted whenever the river overflows or where the river’s speed is monitored, for example, when it falls into a lake.
Alluvium contains silt, sand, clay, and gravel and usually contains a large number of organisms. Therefore, it produces highly fertile soils like the Mississippi deltas, the Nile, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, and the Huang Rivers.
See also: Soil erosion
What is the nature of alluvial soil?
- Their color is due to the abundance of organic matter.
- Alluvial soils are mainly associated with fluvial alluvial plains.
- Alluvial soils are difficult to define satisfactorily as they develop in dams, seas, or oceans.
- Colored into light grey and dark grey soils
What is the composition of the alluvial soil?
Alluvial soil covers
- Deltaic alluvium,
- Alluvium coastal as well
- Inland alluvium
What are the Major characteristics/properties of alluvial soil?
- A river load is formed as it flows from its upper course to its lower point.
- It is light and porous, so it can be easily tillable.
- It is fertile soil as it is rich in minerals, especially potash and lime.
- It is suitable to plant a variety of rabbi and Kharif plants.
- The soil in arid areas is highly alkaline.
What are the types of alluvial soil?
At the local level, the soil contains all two types: old and old. Bhangar and Khadar are two types of land
What are the differences between Bangar and Khadar soil?
Bangar soil (old soil)
- This is an old floodplain that represents the entire plateau.
- These areas are well watered and ready for cultivation.
- This area is quite beyond the floodplains of neighboring rivers.
- The soil is rich in humus and gives high yields due to the rich amount of minerals and humus in the soil.
- Made of calcium carbonate nodules called “Kankars“ polluted in nature.
Khadar soil (new soil)
- New plains are being built as a result of river-level deposits.
- It is developed and built with new grass every year.
- Khadar clay is made up of silk, mud, clay, and sand.
- The land of Khadar is suitable for growing sugarcane, rice, wheat, maize, and oil grains.
Other types of alluvial soil can be given below
It is a continuous belt 8 to 16 km wide along the Shiwaliks mountains. It is very full and has huge mounds brought by the Himalayan Rivers and is situated on the side of the mountains in the manner of the beloved fans. They are usually made of stone. It has a unique feature; the rivers flowing down from the Himalayan Mountains disappear beneath its surface because of its timber. The river flows almost completely under the rocks and reappears at the edges of this layer. During the monsoon season, the area seems to be flooded with river tracks. This region is not suitable for any plant. And only large trees with a deep network of roots can be found here.
Terai is a waterless area with dense forests, lying near Babar. It is wider than Babar which is between 15 and 30 km wide. Rivers and streams crossing the Bhabar also reappear in this region forming this swampy desert. The soil is made of silk and is rich in nitrogen and organic matter. However, it is a phosphate specialist and the region is widely cultivated, and large pieces of forest have been transformed into plantations. Wheat, rice, jute, and sugarcane are prominent crops and the region’s dense forests support rich wildlife.
Alluvial Soils Distribution in India
Alluvial soil occurs throughout the Indo-Gangetic-Brahmaputra plains except for a few areas where the top layer is covered with desert sand. They also appear in the deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Cauvery, where they are called deltaic alluvium or coastal alluvium. Some soil is abundant and is found in Narmada, Tapi valleys, and northern parts of Gujarat.
Alluvial soils are derived from the deposition of mud in many rivers. They cover about 75 million ha of Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and
Brahmaputra Valley was also distributed in the Punjab region, Haryana, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, and India’s coastal areas
Plants/Crop suitable for alluvial soil (alluvial soil crops)
Before entering commercial agriculture, you should know which crops are suitable for all soils. Alluvial soils are mostly well-drained and well-suited for agriculture. Alluvial soils are better suited to the irrigation system and respond well to trenches or well irrigation. They produce excellent crops of rice, wheat, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, pulses, oilseeds, jute, corn, oilseeds, flower crops, vegetables, and fruits, etc.