What are Biofertilizer?
Biofertilizers are characterized as arrangements containing living cells or inactive cells of effective strains of microorganisms that help harvest plants’ take-up of supplements by their interactions in the rhizosphere when applied through seed or soil.
Where Biofertilizers are used?
It’s used in organic farming, sustainable agriculture, green farming and non pollution farming. It is also one of the important components of integrated nutrient management, as they are cost effective and renewable source of plant nutrients to supplement the chemical fertilizers for sustainable agriculture.
See also : Importance of Soil Management in Agriculture
Biofertilizer – Application Methods
Seedling Root Dip:
A bed of water is spread on the land where the crop has to grow. The seedlings of rice are planted in water and are kept there for 8 to 10 hours.
Nitrogen and Phosphorous fertilizers are mixed together in the water and seeds are dipped in this mixture. After application the seeds are dried and sown as soon as possible before they get damaged by harmful microorganisms.
In this method, all the biofertilizers along with the compost fertilizers are mixed together and kept for a night. Then on next day the mixture is spread on the soil where seeds have to be sown.
Types of Biofertilizers
There are mainly four types of biofertilizers.
- Nitrogen Biofertilizer
- Phosphate Biofertilizer
- Cellulolytic Biofertilizer (Compost Bio-fertilizer)
- Liquid Biofertilizer
a. Nitrogen Bio-fertilizer
It adjusts the nitrogen level of the soil. Nitrogen is the essential sustenance for the plant development. Nitrogen biofertilizer is significant as it gives nitrogen to the soil. There are a few microscopic organisms green growth parasites that fix climatic nitrogen. There are various sorts of nitrogen biofertilizer which improve the nitrogen in various yields like, rhizobium for vegetable harvests azotobacter for non vegetable harvests blue green growth and azolla for marsh paddy crops.
b. Phosphate Bio-fertilizer
It adjusts the Phosphorus level of the soil. Phosphorus biofertilizers are in the dissolvable structure. Phosphorus biofertilizer frames cooperative relationship with foundations of the plant and give phosphate to the plant to the best possible development.
Fungi like gigaspora, glamus, endogone and so on associate with roots of the plant to give Phosphorus are known as mycorrhizal association, there are certain living microscopic organisms like psedudomas fluoroscens, bacillus, subtilis, psedomonas putide that solubilize phosphate in the soil and it help in the plant development.
c. Cellulolytic Bio-fertilizer
This biofertilizer increases the rate of decomposition procedure of organic matter. Appropriate biofertilizer for manure use are cellulolytic parasitic culture. Cellulolytic biofertilizer is likewise called compost fertilizer.
Vermicompost and other organic fertilizer which is set up from waste material of sugar ventures are decayed with different plant and microscopic organisms parasites, this sorts of biofertilizers or biocompost wealthy in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, compounds and anti-microbial which help to improve the plant development and yield.
d. Liquid Bio-fertilizer
It is one of the least expensive and acclaimed “types of biofertilizers” for farmers. It can use made up by cow manure with the solution of water. Typically ranchers use it as an essential part for the development of plant or crops.
Advantages of Biofertilizers
- Biofertilizers increase the yield of plants by 15-35%.
- Biofertilizers are compelling even under semi-arid conditions,
- Farmers can set up the inoculum themselves,
- They improve soil surface,
- Bio-composts do not allow pathogens to prosper,
- They produce nutrients and growth promoting bio-chemicals,
- They are non-polluting.
Biofertilizers require special care for long-term storage because they are alive. They must be used before their expiration date.