In sprinkler irrigation method, water is sprinkled into the air and allowed to fall on the ground surface just like rainfall. The spray is done by the flow of water under pressure through small orifices or nozzles. The pressure is generally obtained by pumping. Through proper selection of nozzle sizes, operating pressure and sprinkler spacing the amount of irrigation water required to refill the crop root zone can be applied almost uniform at the rate to suit the infiltration rate of soil.
In agriculture, almost all crops are suitable for sprinkler irrigation system except crops such as paddy and jute. The dry crops, vegetables, flowering crops, orchards, plantation crops like tea, coffee are all suitable and can be irrigated through sprinklers techniques of irrigation.
Advantages of sprinkler irrigation:
- Sprinkler Irrigation helps to save water.
- Suitable to all types of soil apart from heavy clay.
- Influences greater conducive micro-climate.
- Appropriate technique for irrigating crops where the plant population per unit area is very high.
- With this technique of irrigation, there is control of water application convenient for giving light and frequent irrigation and higher water application efficiency.
- Sprinkle irrigation increases in yield.
- Labor cost is reduced.
- Less problem of clogging of sprinkler nozzles due to sediment laden water.
- It saves land as no bunds are required..
- Areas located at a higher elevation than the source can be irrigated.
- In this technique there is a possibility of using soluble fertilizers and chemicals.
- Sprinkler irrigation helps to eliminates soil Erosion
Read also: Advantages of Drip Irrigation System
Disadvantages of sprinkler Irrigation:
- In sprinkler irrigation, initial cost of implementation is high.
- Loss of water due to evaporation
- Efficiency is poor in high wind conditions
- Sprinkler Irrigation requires high and constant energy requirement for operation.
- Highly saline water causes leaf burning when temperature is higher than 95 F.