In this article, we are going to see the pest and disease management in banana.
PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN BANANA
|Rhizome will not germinate, Internal tissue brown/yellow and watery, Pseudo stem breaks from the rhizome||Bacteria||Bacteria in soil enter through wounds, disease encouraged by wet and humid conditions||Select only high-quality rhizome, disinfect all tools for propagation regularly, allow seed pieces to dry properly|
|Older leaves wilted and collapsing, Spreads to the entire canopy, the collapse of pseudostem||Bacterium||Spread root to root by insects or human activities such as machete pruning||Regular monitoring is required, male buds should be removed, infected plants need to be destroyed|
|Red/brown flecks or spots on underside or topside of leaves, spots with dark or yellow border and grey center, death of leaf surface, a bunch not developing||Fungus||The most important disease of banana, promoted by high moisture and spores spread by wind||Increase spacing between plants to improve air circulation and reduce humidity and remove leaves with mature spots. A regular fungicide application is required.|
|Brown spots on fruit peel, black lesions on green fruit||Fungus||Spread by rainfall through plant or banana bunch||Commercially produced Fruits should be washed and dipped in fungicide before shipping, protect the fruit from injury, remove flower parts which can harbor fungus|
|Yellowing of Older leaves, splitting of leaf sheaths, leaves wilting and buckling death of entire canopy||Fungus||Lethal disease, spread in soil or running water||Use disease-free seed pieces, currently no effective treatment once plants are infected|
|Pale green flecks on leaves which enlarge to chlorotic streaks enlarge and turn brown with chlorotic halo, mature lesions are the grey and dark brown border, lesions coalesce and kill large area of leaves||Fungus||Spores spread by rain, air and irrigation water||Fungicide application and improved spacing required for air circulation|
(Banana bunchy top virus – BBTV)
|Dark Green Streaks in leaves, chlorotic and upturned leaf margins, leaves brittle and erect, the plant has a bunchy top, no bunches produced||Virus||Aphid transmitted when infected symptoms appear after two more leaves are produced||Plant less susceptible varieties, destroy infected plants to prevent the spread of disease|
cucumber mosaic virus ( CMV )
|Chlorotic mottling or stripes on foliage, distorted fruit which may have chlorotic streaks or mottling, distorted leaves, leaf necrosis||Virus||Transmitted by aphids, may be transmitted through infected seed||Remove susceptible host plants from around plantation, plant virus-free material|
|Deformed plants with curled, shriveled leaves, colonies of aphids usually present in the crown of the plant at the base of pseudostem or between the outer leaf sheaths, the aphid is soft-bodied and red-brown to almost black in color||Insect||Colonies are often tended by ants, populations can build up during warm conditions||Insecticidal soaps can prevent aphid populations, plants infected with bunchy top should be removed and destroyed to avoid the spread|
|Small, Flat, Whitish scales, usually on undersides of leaves but may also attach to petioles, peduncles and fruit, plant tissue discolored and yellowing||Insect||Coconut scale attacks a large number of hosts including coconut and other palm species, avocado, cassava, papaya, guava and sugar cane, most common in tropical regions||Biological Control is the best way to manage scale, with lady beetles providing the most effective protection|
(Cosmopolites Sordidus )
|Reduced plant growth and fruit production, plants wilting and toppling over, plant death||Insect||Insects are nocturnal, feeding and mating only at night||Plant only healthy plant material, do not plant if any tunnels are visible, hot water treatment of cleanly trimmed suckers can be used to kill off many eggs and grubs, applications of neem powder can reduce weevil numbers, appropriate insecticides applied at the time of planting can help control weevil numbers|
|Cigar end rot
(Verticillium fructigena, Trachysphaera theobromae)
|Tips of fingers initially begin to darken and wrinkle, tips of fingers develop a dark rot, if verticillium fungi are present then the rot is typically dry and the tips become mummified, if Trachysphaera is present, the rotted are become covered with white spores which gives the fingers the ashen appearance characteristics of cigar end rot||Fungus||The disease is of economic importance in Central and West Africa, also occurs in India, West Indies, etc.,||The flower should be removed, bunches should be covered with perforated polyethylene bags, the chemical application may require in case of severity|
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