Banana is a very popular fruit due to its low price and high nutritive value. Banana is a rich source of carbohydrate and rich in vitamins particularly vitamin B.
Banana evolved in the humid tropical regions of South East Asia with India as one of its center of origin.
See also: Benefits of Mulching in Agriculture
It’s a tropical crop grows well in a temperature range of 15 degree Celsius to 35 degree Celsius with a relative humidity of 75-85%.
Deep rich loamy soil with pH value between 6.5 – 7.5 is most preferred for banana cultivation.
|S. No||Banana Variety||Features||Grown Areas|
|1||Dwarf Cavendish||The duration of the crop is 11 months and produces bunch with an average weight of 20 kg, compactly arranged with 140 to 160 fruit / bunch||Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Assam, Nagaland and Meghalaya|
|2||Robusta||Plants bear potential bunches weighing 25 to 30 Kgs each with good sized, slightly curved fruit||Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Bihar, Jharkhand, Kerala and Maharashtra|
|3||Rasthali||Plants are medium statured and the crop takes 13 to 15 months to come to harvest with bunch weighing 15-18 kg each.||Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam and Mizoram|
|4||Nendran||Exported to Gulf Countries, bunch weight varies from 8-15 kg having 30 – 50 fingers. Fruit have a distinct neck with thick and green peel which turns yellow on ripening.||Kerala, Tamil Nadu|
|5||Poovan||Under optimum crop management, it bears bunches weighing 20-24 kg each having 150 – 300 fingers, it is distinguished from other cultivars by its pink pigmentation on the ventral side of the midri of young leaves.||Tripura, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Sikkim, Jharkhand, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Kerala and Karnataka|
|6||Ney Poovan||First crop cycle in 12-13 months, bunch orientation is horizontal and weight varies from 18 – 20 Kg with 150 fruit / bunch||Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.|
|7||Grand Naine||It is a medium to tall statured variety and is a heavy yielder with long cylindrical bunch. On an average is produces a bunch weighing 25-35 Kg and goes up to 60-65 Kg in crop duration of 11-12 months.||All over India|
|8||Red Banana||Elite banana cultivar and grown for red peeled delicious fruit of unique taste. The plants are tall, robust ranging from 2.5 m to 3.0 m in height, produces bunches to tune of 20 – 30 Kg||Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu|
|9||Monthan||Fairly tall and robust, growing to a height of 2.5 to 3.0 m||Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha and Kerala|
|10||Karpuravalli||Tolerance to drought. Salt and Wind, ease of cultivation and high productivity has favoured its commercial cultivation at larger scale in marginal soil conditions in South India. Takes about 16 months to complete first crop cycle with bunches of 25-35 Kg weight under optimum crop management conditions.||Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu|
|11||Virupakshi||Duration of crop is 14 months, average bunch weight is 12 Kg and 6-8 hands with 80-90 fruit / bunch.||Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu|
|12||Udhayam||The Plants are comparatively dwarf in stature with a duration of 13 – 14 months||Tripura, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala|
|13||Pachanadan||Duration of the crop is 11 – 12 months, tall statured with 2.6 to 3.1 m in height and 50-55 cm circumference at the base.||Tamil Nadu|
Commercially bananas are classified as dessert types and culinary types. Important cultivars include Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Monthan, Poovan, Nendran, Red banana, Nyali, Safed Velchi, Basrai, Ardhapuri, Rasthali, Karpuravalli, Karthaili and Grand Naine etc.,
Grand Naine, is an imported variety from Israel is gaining popularity and soon become the most preferred variety due to its tolerance to abiotic stresses and good quality bunches.
See also: Chemical Farming to Organic Farming
Banana Planting Season in India
|1||Tamil Nadu||February – April
November – December
|2||Maharashtra||Kharif – June – July
Rabi – October – November
|3||Kerala||Rainfed –April – May
Irrigated Crop – August -September
India leads the world in banana production with an annual output of about 14.2 million tones. Other leading producers are Brazil, Ecuador, China, Philippines, Indonesia, Mexico, Thailand and Colombia.