essay on agriculture sector in India

We understand that agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy, employing more than half of the country’s population. With an ever-increasing demand for food, the Indian agricultural industry is of significant importance not only for the economy but also for the livelihoods of many people.

At present, India is the world’s second-largest producer of food and is home to several crops, including rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, and fruits and vegetables. The country’s vast agricultural sector encompasses a wide range of activities, from cultivating crops to animal husbandry, forestry, and fishing.

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Growth and Development of the Agriculture Sector in India

India’s agriculture sector plays a critical role in the country’s economy, culture, and way of life. It is not only a means of livelihood for many people but also a way of living. The government has been consistently striving to develop this sector since the entire nation relies on it for sustenance.

Historically, agriculture has been practiced in India for thousands of years, but it remained underdeveloped for a long time. After independence, India used to import food grains to meet the growing demand. However, after the green revolution, the country became self-sufficient and even started exporting surplus to other countries.

Today, India has made significant progress in agriculture due to various factors such as the construction of dams, canals, tube-wells, and pump-sets for better irrigation, and the availability of a variety of fertilizers, pesticides, and high-yielding seeds. The sector has also benefited from the adoption of advanced technology and specialized knowledge of agriculture, leading to higher productivity and growth.

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Significance of Agriculture in India

Agriculture is a critical sector in India, as the food we eat is the product of the hard work of Indian farmers. It is also a major contributor to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and national income. The sector employs a large labor force, with around 80% of the total employed people engaged in agriculture-related activities. In addition, the sector also provides indirect employment opportunities.

significance of agriculture in India

The agriculture sector is responsible for around 70% of India’s total exports, with major items being tea, cotton, textiles, tobacco, sugar, jute products, spices, rice, and many others. The sector’s contribution to the country’s exports highlights the significance of agriculture to the Indian economy.

Role of Agriculture in India

Agriculture plays a crucial role in the economic development of India as 3/4th of the population is based on agriculture. It is one of the largest sources of livelihood for the country. The country was dependent on agriculture for a thousand years.

The agricultural sector also benefits the industries in getting their raw materials, which clearly states that a large part of the economy will freeze without a flourishing agriculture sector

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Cultivating Crops in India

Agriculture in India is predominantly rain-fed and depends heavily on monsoon season. India has several agro-climatic zones that influence the types of crops grown in different regions. Farmers use traditional methods, as well as advanced techniques, to cultivate crops.

Rice, wheat, sugarcane, and cotton are the main crops grown in India. The Green Revolution in the 1960s and 70s saw a significant increase in the production of these crops. Additionally, India is also home to several oilseed crops, such as groundnuts, mustard, and sesame, which are also important in the country’s agriculture sector.

Animal Husbandry

Animal husbandry is another essential aspect of Indian agriculture. The country has one of the world’s largest livestock populations, and dairy farming is a crucial part of the industry. Livestock farming not only provides meat and dairy products but also serves as an important source of income for many people in rural areas.


Forestry is another important part of Indian agriculture. The country has large forest areas that are home to a diverse range of flora and fauna. Timber, as well as non-timber forest products, such as medicinal plants, bamboo, and honey, are important to the Indian economy. The government is also taking measures to promote sustainable forestry practices.


Fishing is a vital economic activity in the coastal areas of India, and the country has a long coastline of more than 7,500 km. Fishing provides employment and food to many people, making it an essential aspect of Indian agriculture.

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Challenges Faced by Indian Agriculture

Despite the vast potential of Indian agriculture, there are several challenges faced by the industry. Climate change, low yields, lack of mechanization, and inadequate infrastructure are some of the significant issues that impact the sector’s growth.

Climate Change

India’s agriculture is heavily dependent on monsoon season, and climate change has resulted in erratic rainfall patterns, leading to droughts and floods in some regions. This has led to significant crop loss and decreased yields, impacting the country’s food security.

Low Yields

Low yields are also a significant challenge in Indian agriculture. Farmers use traditional methods of farming, resulting in low productivity. Additionally, the use of outdated technologies and limited access to irrigation facilities also impact yields.

Lack of Mechanization

The majority of Indian farmers are small and marginal, and lack access to mechanized farming tools. This results in low productivity and an inability to scale up production.

Inadequate Infrastructure

Lack of adequate infrastructure, such as storage facilities and transportation, leads to post-harvest losses, and farmers are unable to sell their produce at a fair price. Additionally, lack of access to credit facilities, insurance, and market information also hampers the growth of the agricultural sector.


In conclusion, Indian agriculture is a significant contributor to the country’s economy and the livelihoods of many people. Despite the challenges faced by the sector, there are several opportunities for growth, including the use of modern technologies and sustainable practices. The government must take measures to promote these practices and invest in infrastructure to enable the growth of the agricultural industry. 

Hope you enjoyed reading this article on ESSAY ON AGRICULTURE SECTOR  IN INDIA.

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